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Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species. Modes of reproduction- Asexual and sexual.

Asexual reproduction – Uniparental
– Modes – Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation, regeneration.
– Vegetative Propagation in plants.
– Micropropagation.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants – Flower structure.
– Development of male and female gametophytes.
– Pollination-type-agencies and examples.
– Outbreeding devices.
– Pollen-Pistil interaction.
– Double fertilization
– Post fertilization events
– Development of endosperm & embryo
– Development of seed and formation of fuit.
– Seed development
– Fruit formation.
– Special modes – apomixes, parthenocarpy, Polyembryony.
– Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction – Male and female reproductive systems.
– Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
– Gametogenesis – spermatogenesis & oogenesis.
– Menstrual cycle
– Fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation implantation.
– Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).
– Parturition (Elementary idea).
– Lactation (Elementary idea.

Reproductive health – Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
– Birth Control – Need and Methods.
– Contraception & Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
– Amniocentesis.
– Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).


Heredity and variation – Mendelian Inheritance
– Deviations from Mendelism, incomplete dominance Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood group, pleiotropy.
– Elementary idea of Polygenic Inheritance
– Chromosome theory of inheritance
– Chromosomes and genes.

 Sex determination – In humans, birds, honey bee.
– Linkage and crossing over.
– Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilla, Colour blindness.

 Medellin disorders in humans – Chromosomal disorders in humans.
Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and klinefelter’s syndromes.

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material. – Structure of DNA and RNA
– DNA packaging
– DNA replication
– Central dogma
– Transcription, genetic code, translation.
– Gene expression and regulation.
– Genome and human genome project.
– DNA finger printing.


Origin of life

Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological from comparative anatomy and embryology and molecular evidence)
– Darwin’s contribution /Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution
– Hardy – Weinberg’s principle.

Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation & Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples drift types of natural slection – Gene flow and genetic
– Adaptive Radiation

Human evolution


Health and Disease – Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines
– Pathogens, parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm).
– Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
– Adolescence drug and alcohol abuse.

Insects and human welfare – Silk, Honey, Lac

Improvement in food production – Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein.
– Biofortification, Animal husbandary.

Microbes in human welfare – In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and bioferilizers.


Principles and process of Biotechnology – Genetic engineering (Recombination DNA technology).

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture – Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy.
– Genetically modified organisms – B+ crops.
– Biosafety issues.
– Biopiracy and patents.


Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche – Organisms and environment.

Population and ecological adaptations – Population Interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism.
– Population attributes – growth, brith rate and death rate,
– Age distribution.


Patterns, components, energy flow, nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous), decomposition and producitivity – Pyramids of number, biomass, energy.
– Ecological succession
– Ecological Services: Carbon fixation, Pollination, Oxygen release

Biodiversity and its conservation – Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation.
– Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book.
– Biodiversity conservation- biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental Issues – Air Pollution and its control
– Water pollution and its control
– Agrochemicals and their effects
– Solid waste management
– Radioactive waste management
– Greenhouse effect and global warming
– Ozone depletion, deforestation.
– Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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