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Reproduction in Organisms
Reproduction a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species. Modes of reproduction- Asexual and sexual.

Asexual reproduction – Uniparental
- Modes – Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation, regeneration.
- Vegetative Propagation in plants.
- Micropropagation.

Sexual reproduction in flowering plants – Flower structure.
- Development of male and female gametophytes.
- Pollination-type-agencies and examples.
- Outbreeding devices.
- Pollen-Pistil interaction.
- Double fertilization
- Post fertilization events
- Development of endosperm & embryo
- Development of seed and formation of fuit.
- Seed development
- Fruit formation.
- Special modes – apomixes, parthenocarpy, Polyembryony.
- Significance of seed and fruit formation.

Human Reproduction – Male and female reproductive systems.
- Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
- Gametogenesis – spermatogenesis & oogenesis.
- Menstrual cycle
- Fertilization, embryo development upto blastocyst formation implantation.
- Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea).
- Parturition (Elementary idea).
- Lactation (Elementary idea.

Reproductive health – Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
- Birth Control – Need and Methods.
- Contraception & Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP).
- Amniocentesis.
- Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).


Heredity and variation – Mendelian Inheritance
- Deviations from Mendelism, incomplete dominance Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood group, pleiotropy.
- Elementary idea of Polygenic Inheritance
- Chromosome theory of inheritance
- Chromosomes and genes.

 Sex determination – In humans, birds, honey bee.
- Linkage and crossing over.
- Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilla, Colour blindness.

 Medellin disorders in humans – Chromosomal disorders in humans.
Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and klinefelter’s syndromes.

Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material. – Structure of DNA and RNA
- DNA packaging
- DNA replication
- Central dogma
- Transcription, genetic code, translation.
- Gene expression and regulation.
- Genome and human genome project.
- DNA finger printing.


Origin of life

Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological from comparative anatomy and embryology and molecular evidence)
- Darwin’s contribution /Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution
- Hardy – Weinberg’s principle.

Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation & Recombination) and Natural Selection with examples drift types of natural slection – Gene flow and genetic
- Adaptive Radiation

Human evolution


Health and Disease – Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines
- Pathogens, parasites causing human diseases ( Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm).
- Cancer, HIV and AIDS.
- Adolescence drug and alcohol abuse.

Insects and human welfare – Silk, Honey, Lac

Improvement in food production – Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein.
- Biofortification, Animal husbandary.

Microbes in human welfare – In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and bioferilizers.


Principles and process of Biotechnology – Genetic engineering (Recombination DNA technology).

Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture – Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy.
- Genetically modified organisms – B+ crops.
- Biosafety issues.
- Biopiracy and patents.


Meaning of ecology, environment, habitat and niche – Organisms and environment.

Population and ecological adaptations – Population Interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism.
- Population attributes – growth, brith rate and death rate,
- Age distribution.


Patterns, components, energy flow, nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous), decomposition and producitivity – Pyramids of number, biomass, energy.
- Ecological succession
- Ecological Services: Carbon fixation, Pollination, Oxygen release

Biodiversity and its conservation – Threats to and need for biodiversity conservation.
- Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book.
- Biodiversity conservation- biosphere reserves, national parks and sanctuaries.

Environmental Issues – Air Pollution and its control
- Water pollution and its control
- Agrochemicals and their effects
- Solid waste management
- Radioactive waste management
- Greenhouse effect and global warming
- Ozone depletion, deforestation.
- Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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